KE SARA, SARA, what ever will be, will be …











{October 23, 2007}   Story of the Internet

“It [the computer] is the first metamedium, and as such it has degrees of freedom for representation and expression never before encountered and as yet barely investigated.”


Alan Kay, president of the Viewpoints Research Institute

 

 

The ARPANet – foundation of today’s World Wode Web

The foundations of what is known today as the World Wide Web were laid when Soviet Union’s satellite, Sputnik was launched in 1957. The US, not wanting to be superseded by the Soviet Union, set out on its own satellite industry. To facilitate this, the Advanced Research Projects Agency or ARPA was set up. A network was also set up to enable the military and different sections of the government to maintain communications with one another under all circumstances. It was called the ARPANet. Developed by Dr. J.C.R.Licklider, it ensured that the network had many standby links on top of the default ones and this ensured that, in times of crisis, no department would be cut off from the network. Gradually, renowned universities in the United States joined this network.

 

Invention of electronic mail

The 1970s were packed with new developments in networking technology. The email was invented in the early 1970s, followed a few years later by Usenet Newsgroups and Multipleuser Dungeons. Interactivity among strangers was becoming easier to achieve.

By the 1980s, the TCP/IP suite was defined as the standard communications protocol for the ARPANet.

Surprisingly, despite these seemingly rapid developments, only 5000 computers were part of this Net in 1986. Over the next few years, however, the establishment of five more supercomputer centers and the upgrading of the Internet backbone to a much higher speed of 1.544 Mbps (T-1) led to a quadrupling in the number of host computers. By 1989, there were 100000 computers on the ARPANet. Around this time, the Net was being used by two separate groups; the military and the commercial sector.

 

Birth of the Internet

The Internet was born in the year 1990 when the ARPANet officially split into two separate networks to further facilitate usage and prevent military secrets from being tapped into easily. They were the Milnet (for military use) and the NSFNet (for commercial use). The NSFNet was named after the National Science Foundation which was in charge of the Internet backbone. The backbone speed was upgraded again to 44.736Mbps (T-3 speed) and by 1992, there were as many as 1 million Internet users.

Today, there are about 605.60 million Internet users in the world.



et cetera